THE INDUSTRY ON THE EDGE OF THE SANTOS - JUNDIAÍ RAILWAY IN THE CITY OF SÃO PAULO
By: Fernando de Pádua Laurentino – Author of the master’s dissertation “Várzeas do Tamanduateí: industrialização e desindustrialização.”
During university, I participated in fieldwork in the discipline of Geography of Industries taught at the time by Prof. Dr. Margarida Maria de Andrade. We came to know São Paulo’s neighborhoods from the first industrialization in São Paulo in that activity. On the way to São Caetano do Sul, we crossed the set of industries and warehouses that accompanies the shore of Santos-Jundiaí railroad tracks, which characterizes our object of study satisfactorily.
The bus that carried the students took Presidente Wilson Avenue from its beginning in the Mooca neighborhood. The avenue that stretches for more than 7 kilometers is an almost uninterrupted succession of industries and warehouses on both sides. The occupation pattern characterizes the first industrialization boom in the city. We see extensive walls flanking the sidewalks and the factory’s doors directly on the street on that avenue, so the factory space was separated by a few meters from the curb. Facades, walls and chimneys of exposed bricks, zigzag roofs and iron structures are present in this landscape. There are no parking lots at the factories since the car was still a novelty when they were built.
In addition to these fundamental considerations that characterized the fledgling São Paulo’s industry, other aspects caught my attention and provoked me. The avenue is straight across its entire route, made possible since the land on which it sits is absolutely flat.
Therefore, anyone who looks from the street level sees it extending to a distant vanishing point. The factories and warehouses’ facades were very similar, and in several sections, they were composed only of extensive and high white or gray walls with guardhouses and with massive iron gates. Many of the buildings were unoccupied because they did not indicate any activities in them and signs with “for rent” or “for sale” denounced the vacancy. Other industrial spaces were not only empty but also abandoned due to the deteriorating state of their equipment or rusting structures. There were scarcely any people on the avenue. There were also almost no trees on the sidewalks, creating a desert environment. That landscape evoked a feeling of loneliness, hostility, and strangeness in me. The strangeness led me to want a better understanding of that space’s production and the industry’s phenomenon leaving São Paulo’s city and that place in particular.
A history of the process of occupation of the place described until the exit of the industries was made from the research. With the study, we understand that the area’s industrial occupation was due to the proximity of the railway line and its stations, one of the main locational factors of the first industrialization of São Paulo. The Santos-Jundiaí railway, in turn, in the city of São Paulo, was established on the floodplains of the Tamanduateí River. That occurred regarding they were terrains that guaranteed a very favorable condition for their settlement: an extensive flat surface. Furthermore, those lands were cheap because they repelled human settlement due to floods in the rainy season. However, the floodplains as open and free spaces were appropriated by the city’s working and poorest population for the most different activities and, among them, leisure. A highlight for the soccer that here in Brazil was played for the first time in the floodplains of Tamanduateí, developed on the banks of many rivers in São Paulo and that became widely known as floodplain football.
The industry that would follow the tracks, looking for the proximity of the railway stations, also took advantage of the natural and price conditions offered by the floodplains lands and settled there, creating a linear industrial region on the flood surface of the Tamanduateí River.
If trails, with floodplains lands, were attractive to the industry at the beginning of the 20th century, they would cease to be in the last decades of the same century. The intense process of metropolization that São Paulo went through raised the cost of maintaining manufacturing activity within the city. The valorization of urban land, the organization of workers (which raised the average wage), and developments in urban agglomeration (traffic, little or no space for expansion, etc.) made the industry start looking for other places to settle down outside the city of São Paulo.
The strangeness mentioned earlier led me to understand the transformations of the floodplain spaces (still present) and the departure and abandonment of industrial areas. The search for the best location conditions for the industry helps to explain the location of the first outbreak of industrialization in São Paulo, as well as the exit of the industrial units along Presidente Wilson Avenue. The research made it possible to understand the reproduction of that space and thus develop an analysis of the socioeconomic processes and the interests of the agents involved in the occupation and appropriation of the Tamanduateí floodplains.
By: Hugo Ribeiro
We do not intend to attribute meaning to the images that we present, and instead, we would like to point out supposed correlations between our work and others and the artistic context in which we are inserted. As well as registering a deindustrialization process, we will start by talking briefly about Brazil’s industrialization.
We could say that the Colony transformations started with the Royal Family’s arrival in Brazil (1808). With political Independence and the integration of Brazil into international economic relations, sectorized modernization.
The procedural economic modernizations and Independence had repercussions on the superstructural, intellectual and imaginary level, with productions that claimed “Brazilian” nationality, both by the origin and by subjects – by way of example, José de Alencar’s Indianist novel, still in the Empire, and, in the 20th century, the Modern Art Week. One of the symbols of progress was the Railways that started to be built in the middle of the 19th century  – Guilherme Gaensly, Marc Ferrez, Frederic Manuel , and Militão Augusto de Azevedo registered the construction of the São Paulo Railway. Photography, which also arises from the Industrial Revolution, played an essential role in producing images of capitalist urbanism’s emergence amid slavery ruralism.
The São Paulo Railway plays a relevant, but not exclusive, role in the industrialization of the State and economic development of other cities in the metropolitan region, such as São Caetano do Sul and Santo André, adjacent to the capital.
In the 20th century, photography advances and establishes itself in Brazil, following and responding to the country’s economic development. Foto Cine Clube Bandeirante, appears, bringing together photographers and enthusiasts in São Paulo, contributing to photography’s popularization. If we could, with the risk of making a mistake by the exaggerated reduction, choose a photographic work that represented the economic modernization of Brazil, we would select the vital production of Hans Gunter Flieg: who photographed from machined pieces of industrial use to glass jars for domestic use, warehouses and factories, bus fleets and the subway, the city of São Paulo, the modernist architecture of MASP and Ibirapuera, hydroelectric plants etc. The USP’s Contemporary Art Museum (MAC-USP), coordinated by Helouise Costa and Marcos Fabris, published the e-book: “Modernismos em diálogo: o papel social da arte e da fotografia na obra de Hans Gunter Flieg”, of which we highlight the following excerpt from the article “Hans Gunter Flieg: vida e obra” by Sergio Burgi:
“From the 1940s onwards, Flieg’s work was strongly influenced by European modernity, combining mastery in the formal elaboration of the photographic image with absolute control over lighting, exposure, and film processing. These extremely detailed images, produced mostly as commissioned works, mainly photographs of industries and products, direct us towards a new imagery universe, focused on the “ecstasy of things”. In it, photography becomes the tool par excellence for the registration and visualization of the objects of industrial society, as well as for their subsequent commercialization and circulation, since publicity and advertising, especially from the 1950s, solidly incorporated the photography to your tools.”
Despite the country’s auspicious development, Brazilians had a terrible time under the military regime after the 1964’s coup. In this odious period, hundreds of men and women were persecuted, tortured, and killed, on the grounds of being “subversive” and to offer risk to the State – ad hoc classification attributable to any opponent of the bourgeois-military dictatorship. The surrendered management opened the door to Imperialism and reinforced Brazil’s dependence on international powers – besides giving cause to the monstrous inflation that guided the economic policies of the 90s.
The national industry reached its peak in the late 1980s, when, due to internal economic issues (neoliberal measures, privatizations, monetary stabilization policies, agglomeration costs, etc.), external (globalization, the international division of labor, global competition, etc.), and structural (dependency), the participation of the secondary sector in GDP engulfs and from then on, in the following decades, a process of deindustrialization begins.
The State of São Paulo, an important manufacturing center in Brazil, is mainly affected by the economic effects resulting from the Federal Government’s neoliberal measures and international competition. With the closure of hundreds of companies’ productive activities, the demobilization of factory warehouses, the increase in the tertiary sector, the conversion of industrious regions into dormitory cities, etc., the urban landscape was an enormous industrial pole in Latin America is dramatically modified.
Thus, the question arises: has photographic production followed this movement towards deindustrialization as recorded by industrial development in Brazil? Yes, but not like in many other countries – without any judgment on this fact.
In an interview with Ulf Erdmann Ziegler, Hilla Becher was asked if she did not find Bernhard Becher’s interest in industrial buildings strange: “That attracted me too, I just didn’t quite know how.” This same attraction, which we share, has manifested itself across the world in diverse ways.
Photographic production, like the arts in general, responds to stimuli. Given the precarious nature of preserving industrial heritage, we can say that these stimuli, the “attraction” for factory buildings, here and there, are linked to the “fascination” with ruin.
The category of ruin in photography is so broad and generic that you can understand everything from the pictures of house wreckage after the storms pass (Robert Polidori, with the work “After the flood”), the demobilization of military apparatus by the dismantling of the USSR (Eric Lusito, in “After the Wall: traces of the Soviet Empire”), or war debris (Kai Wiedenhöfer, in “The book of destruction: Gaza – one year after the 2009 war”). It seems to us that ruins, as remnants of something that no longer exists, is linked to the phenomenon of transformation, of change.
Social medias play an essential role in the circulation and popularization of images of ruins and debris, whether from Aztec constructions or a city abandoned due to nuclear accident. On Instagram, a platform on which amateur or professional artists deposit their photographs, a plethora of hashtags classify the images of abandonment and the practice of exploring abandoned places.
Here in Brazil, we could mention Ana Ottoni’s photo essay on the brutalist ruins, a theme analyzed in depth in her master’s dissertation, where she makes rich considerations about the aesthetic dimension of the ruin makes us less daring about any digression on the subject. We recommend reading. However, mainly, our work approaches – thematically and not qualitatively – the outstanding essay “The last adventure” by Romy Pocz, when she captured the remains of Fordlândia – which, to some extent, is close to the subject of Detroitism – in this particular, we could mention the photographs by Yves Marchan/Romain Meffre  and Andrew Moore.
Brazilian cinema has also managed to capture this phenomenon. The film “Ontem havia coisas estranhas no céu”, directed by Bruno Risas, is a dramatic representation of the daily life of a lower-middle-class family who lives in the Mooca neighborhood (São Paulo, Brazil). In the background, there is the process of urban restructuring, clay chimneys between commercial buildings, and the occurrence of urban problems, such as the privatization of public space and the unbridled urban verticalization. The film takes place in an industrial neighborhood that has been converted into a residential one: in the past, Mooca had many factories and thousands of workers lived in the region, as recorded by the song “Abrigo de vagabundo” by Adoniran Barbosa:
“I got my money working all year
In pottery, making pots and at the top of Mooca
I bought a beautiful lot ten from the front and ten from the back
I built my maloca”
We would like to talk about the international scene and how artists represent social, economic, architectural, and/or cultural transformations and changes worldwide.
At this moment, there is an intense movement of photographers registering the buildings of Constructivism in the region of the former Soviet Union. Not as methodical as the Becher couple’s typologies, but equally documentary. Among which we cite the work of Anya, extraordinary production of photographs of mosaics and Soviet buildings; Arseny Kotov, his photographs capture abandoned cities, socialist monuments, the simplicity of everyday urban life amid imposing Soviet buildings; Daniel Corazón, the photographer’s lens captures statues, mosaics, 20th-century buildings, as a backdrop for contemporary life for the Russian people; Konstantin, his images are predominantly of buildings constructed by the Soviet State; Meau, the artist, by isolating building facades from constructivist architecture or Soviet classicism, from statues, or other buildings of the 20th century, observing symmetry and proportion, or making interesting compositions, he creates wonderful images of the socialist legacy; and dear Valeriy Nemirov – with whom we exchange information about photographic techniques and discussions about the architecture of the 20th century – who, with precision and technical rigor, photographs the lines and shapes, the colors and the shadows, the interior and the exterior, of buildings of modernism Russian or Soviet mosaics.
Furthermore, we refer to the monumental project “Socialist Modernism” developed by BACU – Birou pentru Artă şi Cercetare Urbană (Department of Art and Urban Research), which has registered the architecture built in East Germany, Bulgaria, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Ukraine between the years 55-91.
Music and audiovisual, in turn, have also followed this movement. Many lyrics of songs of what was conventionally called “Sovietwave” – subgenre or derivative of “post-punk” – take care of this socialist past, either nostalgically or critically. The music video for the song “Volny”, by the band Молчат мома (Molchat Doma), is an impressive drone flyover over streets, buildings, power plants, in Pripyat, an abandoned city in Ukraine – the album cover, in turn, is a modernist construction, the Hotel Panorama building, designed by the Czech avant-garde Zdeněk Řihák and opened in 1970 in Slovakia.
In Portugal, we have Gastão de Brito e Silva’s images with the Project “Ruin’arte”. The photographer gathered hundreds and hundreds of photographs of buildings (approximately 1600 buildings) abandoned throughout the country. In Belgium, Christophe Van de Walle has been exploring abandoned palaces and palaces across Europe and creating magnificent images of these buildings destroyed and taken over by vegetation.
Whether recording architectural memory in Eastern Europe, the opulence and sumptuousness of a feudal past, or the abandonment of a city in the Amazon by a major automotive company, all of these images capture remaining signs of something that no longer exists and are closely linked to the phenomenon of transformation and change.
We understand, modestly, that our project of photographing the signs of the process of deindustrialization on the margins of the old São Paulo Railway is, more or less, within this global movement that is insufficient and briefly described – the research and registration works are still in progress. Our impulses have different origins, and that our “attraction” is specific and particular, being intimately linked to the national question within a Latin American context.
We do not support those who call labor rights jaboticaba, let alone close ranks with liberals who simplify complex economic problems and call social conquests the “Brazil cost”. We are in other trenches.
Finally, we are convinced that bringing the issue of economic dependence through photography, on the eve of the bicentenary of Brazil’s political independence, is ultimately a provocation to the political discussion about the self-determination of the Brazilian people that will only happen with independence economical.
 “It can be seen that the economic modernization associated with the extinction of the colonial statute and the establishment of an independent national state did not aim at adapting the Brazilian economic environment to all the structural and functional requirements of an integrated capitalist economy, such as those that existed in Europe. Its innovative stimuli were considerable, but one-sided. They aimed to establish a relatively efficient coordination between the functioning and growth of the Brazilian economy and the types of economic interests that prevailed in the relations of the central economies with Brazil.” FLORESTAN, Fernandes. A revolução burguesa no Brasil: ensaio de interpretação sociológica. 6ª Edition. São Paulo: Contracorrente, 2020. P. 105
 We took the opportunity to register the event “1922: modernismo em debate”: a cycle of debates that will start on March 29 and will continue until December 2021, promoted by the joint action between the Pinacoteca de São Paulo, the Moreira Sales Institute and the Museum of Contemporary Art at the University of São Paulo (Museu de Arte Contemporânea da Universidade de São Paulo).
 “This slowness was shaken in the 60’s of the 19th century when, with surprising speed, the railway, leaving the port of Santos, slid almost suddenly through the steep Serra do Mar, above and flooded the plateau with its own time, its speed, his new spatiality, the new mentality that spread, that of hurry, that of arriving soon, that of not having time, that of being on the same day in two places previously separated by days of riding. The modern that crept in hidden became visible, steam engine, equipment, changes in space, another language, another way of being and seeing oneself. It has in fact become what it was without being able: the time regulated by cost and profit. The man ceased to be the leader of the troop to be led as a troop. ” MARTINS, José de Souza. A aparição do demônio na fábrica: origens sociais do Eu divido no subúrbio. São Paulo: ED. 34, 2008. P. 16
 In the upper left corner of the 1924 “São Paulo” screen by Tarsila do Amaral, you can see the S.P.R. “The canvas portrays the most emblematic landscape of the modern spirit of the city of São Paulo at the time, the Vale do Anhangabaú. It is one more of the canvases from the Pau-Brasil phase in which Tarsila shows this time urban Brazil with cubist technique and country colors.” Source: http://tarsiladoamaral.com.br/obra/pau-brasil-1924-1928/
 Imperial Decree No. 1,759 / 1856 authorized “the incorporation of a Company for the construction of a Railway between the City of Santos and Villa de Jundiahy, in the Province of S. Paulo”, the so-called São Paulo Railway.Source: https://www2.camara.leg.br/legin/fed/decret/1824-1899/decreto-1759-26-abril-1856-571236-publicacaooriginal-94323-pe.html
 Guilherme Gaensly’s photographs:
“S.P.R. Estação Piassaguera” – http://brasilianafotografica.bn.br/brasiliana/handle/20.500.12156.1/955
“S.P.R. Estação da Luz” (i) – http://brasilianafotografica.bn.br/brasiliana/handle/20.500.12156.1/957
“S.P.R. Estação da Luz” (ii) – http://brasilianafotografica.bn.br/brasiliana/handle/20.500.12156.1/958
“S.P.R. Estação da Luz” (iii) – http://brasilianafotografica.bn.br/brasiliana/handle/20.500.12156.1/959
“S.P.R. Estação da Luz: Entrada” – http://brasilianafotografica.bn.br/brasiliana/handle/20.500.12156.1/960
“S.P.R. Estação da Luz: Restaurante” – http://brasilianafotografica.bn.br/brasiliana/handle/20.500.12156.1/961
“S.P.R. Alto da Serra” – http://brasilianafotografica.bn.br/brasiliana/handle/20.500.12156.1/774
“S.P.R. Viaducto na linha nova” – http://brasilianafotografica.bn.br/brasiliana/handle/20.500.12156.1/956
“Álbum Fotografias de São Paulo 1900 – Alto da Serra – São Paulo Railway” – http://brasilianafotografica.bn.br/brasiliana/handle/20.500.12156.1/1862
 Marc Ferrez’s photographs:
“Estrada de Ferro São Paulo Railway – Estação da Luz” – http://brasilianafotografica.bn.br/brasiliana/handle/20.500.12156.1/7264
“Estrada de Ferro São Paulo Railway – Estação da Luz” –
“Serra de Santos” – http://brasilianafotografica.bn.br/brasiliana/handle/20.500.12156.1/7262
“Ferrovia São Paulo Railway – Ponte da Grota Funda – http://brasilianafotografica.bn.br/brasiliana/handle/20.500.12156.1/4753
 Frederic Manuel’s photographs:
“São Paulo Railway Company: Alto da Serra” – http://brasilianafotografica.bn.br/brasiliana/handle/20.500.12156.1/4192
“São Paulo Railway Company: Grota Funda (as duas linhas)” – http://brasilianafotografica.bn.br/brasiliana/handle/20.500.12156.1/4193
“São Paulo Railway Company: Serra do Mar” – http://brasilianafotografica.bn.br/brasiliana/handle/20.500.12156.1/4194
“São Paulo Railway Company: Estação da Luz, vestíbulo” – http://brasilianafotografica.bn.br/brasiliana/handle/20.500.12156.1/4206
 Militão Augusto de Azevedo’s photographs:
“Construção da Estrada de Ferro Santos – Jundiaí” –http://brasilianafotografica.bn.br/brasiliana/handle/20.500.12156.1/2376
“Construção da Estrada de Ferro Santos – Jundiaí” – http://brasilianafotografica.bn.br/brasiliana/handle/20.500.12156.1/2375
“Raiz da Serra. Subida do primeiro plano inclinado” – http://brasilianafotografica.bn.br/brasiliana/handle/20.500.12156.1/2379
 “It was not only the isolated factor of the tracks and the railway stations that attracted the industries, but also the availability of flat, wide and cheap land around the stations and the tracks.
Several authors comment on the ‘attraction’ exerted by the railway stations on the industries in São Paulo at the end of the last century and the beginning of this century. What seems to have not been avoided, by some authors, is the reduction of the explanation of the railway as an isolated factor in the ‘attraction’ of the industry within the city. Some authors do not go so far as to categorically state that the railroad was the only attractive element, but because it is predominant it is often reduced to this single factor, as Pierre George points out: ‘The geographical link between the railway companies and the location of the industrial establishment seems be fundamental, in this first phase of industrial development ‘(…)’ … in a second phase, the direction that prevails over the others, is that oriented by the axis of the Santos-Jundiaí Railway, which covers the Mooca Park , São Caetano do Sul, Santo André and Mauá. ‘The railway lines are cited as the main axes of industrialization and guiding urban expansion in the city of São Paulo and from there to other cities in the metropolitan region, as Monbeig seems to state:’ Along the rail the development of Parque da Mooca and Vila Prudente reached the village of São Caetano’.” LAURENTINO, Fernando de Pádua; ANDRADE, Margarida Maria de. Várzeas do Tamanduateí: industrialização e desindustrialização. 2002.Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, 2002.
 More information: https://fotoclub.art.br/historia/
 More information: https://ims.com.br/titular-colecao/hans-gunter-flieg/
 Source: COSTA, Helouise; FABRIS, Marcos; FLIEG, Hans Günter. Seminário Modernismos em Diálogo: o papel social da arte e da fotografia a partir da obra de Hans Gunter Flieg. Seminário Modernismos em Diálogo: o papel social da arte e da fotografia a partir da obra de Hans Gunter Flieg[S.l: s.n.], 2015. P. 48 (http://www.livrosabertos.sibi.usp.br/portaldelivrosUSP/catalog/view/313/274/1172-1)
 The head professor of the Center for Economic Development Studies at the Unicamp Institute of Economics, Wilson Cano, in the article “Industrialização, desindustrialização e políticas de desenvolvimento ”, says about the neoliberal agreements signed by Brazil: “It is no use thinking about Economics just for one technical prism of formulating a certain recipe when the problem is political. If governments, after 1990, sold their souls to the devil, that is, the financial system; we need to break that agreement. But it is a very complicated attitude, because when you make an agreement with the devil he will demand your soul, after taking the liver, the pancreas. Anyway, the international political horizons are the worst.” Revista FAAC, Bauru, v. 1, n. 2, p. 155-164, out. 2011/mar. 2012; ISSN 2236-3424, V.1 N.2. Source: https://www.wilsoncano.com.br/artigos-publicados
 Source: https://revistazum.com.br/revista-zum-1/hilla-becher/
 More information: https://steidl.de/Books/After-the-Flood-0915384748.html
 More information: https://photoawards.com/winner/zoom.php?eid=8-21528-10
 More information: https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2011/jan/23/kai-wiedenhofer-book-destruction-gaza
 We selected hashtags with over one hundred thousand publications: #abandon #abandoned (8 million) #abandoned_addiction (600 thousand) #abandonedbuilding (700 thousand) #abandonedafterdark (1 million) #abandonedcentral (300 thousand) #abandonedplaces (4 million) #abandoned_junkies (1 million) #abandonedphotography (500 thousand) #abandonedplaces (4 million) #all_is_abandoned (700 thousand) #anonymousbando (300 thousand) #batpixs_lostplaces (100 thousand) #decay (3 million) #decay_explorers (400 thousand) #forgottenplaces (600 thousand) #global_urbex (200 thousand) #ig_urbex (1 million) #kings_abandoned (1 million) #ruins (3 million) #savethedecay (600 thousand) #the_urbex_institute (300 thousand) #total_abandoned (600 thousand) #urbex (9 million) #urbexartists (300 thousand) #urbex_utopia (1 million) #welcometwoneverland (200 thousand) #world_wide_urbex (200 thousand)
 More information: https://www.romypocz.com/work/a-ultima-aventura
 More information: https://www.instagram. com/romypocz/
 More information: https://www1.folha.uol.com.br/amp/ilustrada/2021/01/ford-deixa-o-pais-agora-mas-antes-abandonou-uma-cidade-inteira-na-amazonia.shtml, accessed in March 10th, 2021
 More information: http://www.marchandmeffre.com/detroit
 More information: https://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/21/arts/design/andrew-moores-photographic-take-on-detroit-decay.html or https://www.andrewlmoore.com/detroit
 More information: https://open.spotify.com/track/7L4UpDj9CRPIJWkIRNG6q2?si=9ccc0eebc0fb44f5
 Word of indigenous origin used by people in the Amazon region that designates a community hut. In urban areas, the word also means simple and poor houses in suburban neighborhoods.
 More information: https://www.instagram.com/ankaaaaaaaaaa/
 More information: https://arseniykotov.com/
 More information: https://www.instagram.com/dancorazon_23/
 More information: https://www.instagram.com/kot_h/ or https://www.instagram.com/brutalistbeton/
 More information: https://indebuurt.nl/leiden/genieten-van/tof-9-x-leiden-door-de-ogen-van-fotograaf-modaser~104697/2/
 More information: https://en.vnemirov.com/ or https://www.instagram.com/v.nemirov_/
 Source: https://socialistmodernism.com/ or https://www.instagram.com/_ba_cu/
 More information: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-6G6AW7oApA
 More information: https://email@example.com,30.0434785,3a,75y,23.6h,90.85t/data=!3m8!1e1!3m6!1sAF1QipOuRhAR-ASJ9zj-Z0BkYEFuAZxs4Sir3_4sggck!2e10!3e11!6shttps:%2F%2Flh5.googleusercontent.com%2Fp%2FAF1QipOuRhAR-ASJ9zj-Z0BkYEFuAZxs4Sir3_4sggck%3Dw203-h100-k-no-pi-22.516352-ya145.68736-ro-3.5754633-fo100!7i6720!8i3360
 More information: https://hotelpanorama.sk/
 More information: https://www.publico.pt/2015/11/27/p3/fotogaleria/ruinarte-imagens-de-um-pais-devoluto-385462
 More information: https://www.artdecay.eu/gallery/ or https://www.instagram.com/christophe _van_de_walle/
 Native fruit from Brazil. The word has been used in a political environment to negatively designate fact, situation or behavior, which, supposedly, would only occur in Brazil.